Small, James

Small, James
b. c. 1742 Scotland
d. 1793 Scotland
Scottish engineer who was first to apply scientific experiment and calculation to the design of ploughs.
James Small served his apprenticeship as a wright and blacksmith at Hutton in Berwickshire, and then travelled for a time in England. It is possible that he learned his trade from the ploughwright Pashley, who ran the "Manufactory" in Rotherham. On his return to Scotland he settled at Blackadder Mount, Berwickshire, and there began to make his ploughs. He used a spring balance to determine the draft of the plough and fashioned the mouldboard from a soft wood so that the wear would show quickly on its surface. Repeated trials indicated the best shape to be adopted, and he had his mouldboards cast at the Carron Ironworks. At trials held at Dalkeith, Small's plough, pulled by two horses, outperformed the old Scotch plough hauled by as many as eight oxen, and his ploughs were soon to be found in all areas of the country. He established workshops in Leith Walk, where he made ploughs and other implements. It was in Edinburgh in 1784 that he published Treatise on Ploughs, in which he set out his methods and calculations. He made no attempt to patent his ideas, feeling that they should be available to all, and the book provided sufficient information for it to be used by his rivals. As a result he died a poor man at the age of 52. His family were supported with a £1,500 subscription raised on their behalf by Sir John Sinclair, President of the Board of Agriculture.
1784, A Treatise on Ploughs and Wheel Carriages.
Further Reading
J.B.Passmore, 1930, The English Plough, Reading: University of Reading (provides a history of plough development from the eighth century, and deals in detail with Small's work).

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Small, James E. —    Mc Defeated by Baldwin, 159; opposes Mackenzie, 214 …   The makers of Canada

  • Small — can refer to the following:* Something very gracious * Something of low size. * Minuscule, or lower case, is the small form (case) of a letter * SMALL, an ALGOL like programming language * A term to describe smaller aircraft for purposes of air… …   Wikipedia

  • James Small (rugby à XV) — Cet article concerne le joueur sud africain de rugby à XV. Pour le botaniste britannique, voir James Small. Infobox Rugbyman James Small …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James Herriot — is the pen name of James Alfred Wight, OBE, also known as Alf Wight (3 October 1916 ndash; 23 February 1995), a British veterinary surgeon and writer. Wight is best known for his semi autobiographical stories, often referred to collectively as… …   Wikipedia

  • James O'Halloran — (born c.1820, died June 1 1913) was a Quebec lawyer and political figure. He was born about 1820 (some sources say 1821) near Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland and came to Canada with his family in 1828. He studied at the University of Vermont and… …   Wikipedia

  • James City County, Virginia — Seal …   Wikipedia

  • James Clerk Maxwell — (1831–1879) Born 13 June 1831 …   Wikipedia

  • James Dole — James Drummond Dole Circa 1927 Born September 27, 1877(1877 09 27) Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts Died May 20, 1958 …   Wikipedia

  • Small-C — es una especificación para un subconjunto del lenguaje de programación C, conveniente para microcomputadores limitados en recursos y para sistema embebidos. También se refiere a la implementación de ese subconjunto de instrucciones. Originalmente …   Wikipedia Español

  • Small-toothed sportive lemur — Conservation status Data Deficient …   Wikipedia

  • James J. Hill — James Jerome Hill (September 16 1838 ndash; May 29 1916), was a noted Canadian American railroad executive. He was the chief executive officer of a family of lines headed by the Great Northern Railway, which served a substantial area of the Upper …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”